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E-mails appear to have a negligible effect on voter turnout.

  • Personalized friend-to-friend e-mails can work on increasing turnout


Social connections, such as Facebook, may work as well


Limited tests have shown that text messaging has shown increased turnout by 2.6%


Nonpartisan e-mails designed to encourage voter participation has negligible effects on voter registration


70% of population used e-mail in 2006. Especially high among registered voters.


Many e-mails are unopened. Some studies indicated an opening rate of 10-20%



  • Reach large numbers at very low cost
  • E-mails can be forwarded
  • E-mail content is flexible
  • Can direct recipients to web site with valuable content

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