Paid media, such as TV, radio, and newspaper, ads that urge voter turnout have a very small capacity to mobilize voters, i.e. 1-2% -- can’t rule out the possibility that the effects are zero
Televised public service announcements have disappointing effects
Mass media represents a potentially cost-effective means of raising turnout due to vast reach, despite small effect ( May not induce many people, but cost/vote low.)
Lowest mass media costs can be found in regions that are less affluent. (Less sales advertising creates opportunity for political advertising)
Most media research relies on surveys, which is flawed.